Saturday, May 23, 2015

Master List #30: The 101 Greatest Films About Childhood


In determining this list for the upcoming overview of The Cinema of Childhood on the estimable website Wonders in the Dark, I had to juggle a few things. First of all, how did the idea of childhood (and often the transition from such a stage into adulthood) most figure into the story. Sometimes, childhood (or, more often, the dramatized teen years) ventured too closely into maturity, and so I had to negate such titles (which made it difficult for films like West Side Story, The Last Picture Show, Dazed and Confused, and American Graffiti to make the cut, and made it impossible for the inclusion of films like Breaking Away or Ghost World, which are really films about newly minted adulthood). Sometimes I had to figure out whether a film was about a specific child performance (as in, say, Tatum O'Neal's turn in Paper Moon, which made the list, versus Justin Henry's turn in Kramer Vs. Kramer, which didn't) versus whether it had something to impart about childhood in general. I had to balance how some of these films had as much or more to say about adulthood as they did about being a kid (so, for instance, Anna Paquin's performance in The Piano didn't help Campion's film onto the list). As always on this sort of list, I was forced into determining what films reminded me of my own childhood (which is why, for instance, I had to include one TV series, Freaks and Geeks, into the mix). I really wanted to balance out the number of female-oriented films with the male ones, and the films that dealt with radically different childhoods than I had experienced (and in considering that, I had to think about those films that were more about the experience the child in question was feeling, rather than childhood itself--thus, something like Come and See is negated, because it's more about wartime). And, of course, I had to consider simply what were the best films of them all...so, with all this in mind, here are my choices:

1) The 400 Blows (Francois Truffaut, 59, US)
2) To Kill A Mockingbird (Robert Mulligan, 62, US) 
3) Seven Up and Seven Plus Seven (Paul Almond / Michael Apted, 64-71, UK) 
4) ET The Extraterrestrial (Steven Spielberg, 82, US)  
5) A Little Romance (George Roy Hill, 79, US/France)
6) Fanny and Alexander (Ingmar Bergman, 83, Sweden)
7) The Last Picture Show (Peter Bogdanovich, 71, US) 
8) The Fallen Idol (Carol Reed, 48, UK) 
9) Zero for Conduct (Jean Vigo, 33, France) 
10) Ponette (Jacques Doillon, 96, France)
11) The Tree of Life (Terrence Malick, 2011, US)
12) The Night of the Hunter (Charles Laughton, 55, US)
13) Small Change (Francois Truffaut, 76, France)
14) The Black Stallion (Carroll Ballard, 79, US)
15) Hope and Glory (John Boorman, 87, UK)
16) The Red Balloon (Albert Lamorisse, 56, France) 
17) Boyhood (Richard Linklater, 2014, US) 
18) Donnie Darko (Richard Kelly, 2001, US)
19) American Graffiti (George Lucas, 73, US)
20) The Spirit of the Beehive (Victor Erice, 73, Spain) 
21) Freaks and Geeks (Paul Feig, 99-00, US) 
22) The Bad News Bears (Michael Richie, 76, US)
23) Rebel Without a Cause (Nicholas Ray, 55, US)
24) Pather Panchali (Satyajit Ray, 55, India) 
25) Over The Edge (Jonathan Kaplan, 79, US)
26) Los Olvidados (Luis Bunuel, 50, Mexico)
27) A Soldier's Daughter Never Cries (James Ivory, 98, US/France) 
28) The Tin Drum (Volker Schlondorff, 79, Germany)
29) Kes (Ken Loach, 69, UK)
30) Moonbird (John and Faith Hubley, 59, US)
31) The 5000 Fingers of Dr. T (Roy Rowland, 53, US)
32) Paper Moon (Peter Bogdanovich, 74, US)
33) Forbidden Games (Rene Clement, 52, France)
34) Margaret (Kenneth Lonergan, 2011, US)
35) Elephant (Gus Van Sant, 2003, US)
36) Mouchette (Robert Bresson, 67, France) 
37) Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (Mel Stuart, 71, US)
38) The Long Day Closes (Terrence Davies, 92, UK) 
39) The Innocents (Jack Clayton, 61, UK)  
40) Gregory's Girl (Bill Forsyth, 81, Scotland)
41) Pollyanna (David Swift, 60, US)
42) George Washington (David Gordon Green, 2001, US)
43) West Side Story (Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins, 61, US)
44) Germany Year Zero (Roberto Rossellini, 48, Italy) 
45) Picnic at Hanging Rock (Peter Weir, 75, Australia)
46) Pixote (Hector Babenco, 81, Brazil)
47) Splendor in the Grass (Elia Kazan, 61, US) 
48) Children of Heaven (Majid Majidi, 97, Iran)
49) Sundays and Cybele (Serge Bourguignon, 62, France)
50) Au Revoir Les Enfants (Louis Malle, 87, France)
51) Let The Right One In (Tomas Alfredson, 2008, Sweden) 
52) Careful He Might Hear You (Carl Schultz, 83, Australia)
53) Little Women (Gillian Armstrong, 94, US) 
54) We Are the Best! (Lukas Moodysson, 2013, Sweden)
55) Streetwise (Martin Bell and Mary Ellen Mark, 82, US)
56) Bugsy Malone (Alan Parker, 76, UK)
57) Meet Me in St. Louis (Vincente Minnelli, 44, US)
58) To Be and To Have (Nicolas Philibert, 2002, France)
59) Oliver! (Carol Reed, 68, UK) 
60) The Diary of Anne Frank (George Stevens, 59, US)
61) A.I. Artificial Intelligence (Steven Spielberg, 2001, US) 
62) Bicycle Thieves (Vittorio De Sica, 48, Italy)  
63) Nobody Knows (Hirokazu Kore-eda, 2005, Japan) 
64) King of the Hill (Steven Soderburgh, 93, US) 
65) Walkabout (Nicolas Roeg, 71, Australia) 
66) My Life as a Dog (Lasse Hallstrom, 85, Sweden) 
67) Europa Europa (Agnieszka Holland, 90, France/Poland) 
68) The Window (Ted Tetzlaff, 49, US) 
69) Invaders from Mars (William Cameron Menzies, 53, US) 
70) The Selfish Giant (Clio Barnard, 2013, UK) 
71) Shoeshine (Vittorio De Sice, 46, Italy) 
72) This is England (Shane Meadows, 2006, UK) 
73) The World of Henry Orient (George Roy Hill, 64, US) 
74) Ordinary People (Robert Redford, 80, US) 
75) Election (Alexander Payne, 99, US) 
76) The Fall (Tarsem Singh, 2008, US/France) 
77) Kikujiro (Takeshi Kitano, 99, Japan)
78) The Man in the Moon (Robert Mulligan, 91, US)
79) Dazed and Confused (Richard Linklater, 93, US)
80) C'est La Vie (Diane Kurys, 90, France) 
81) Clueless (Amy Heckerling, 95, US) 
82) Marvin and Tige (Eric Weston, 83, US)
83) Rushmore (Wes Anderson, 99, US)
84) In America (Jim Sheridan, 2002, US/Ireland)
85) The Other (Robert Mulligan, 72, US)
86) Lord of the Flies (Peter Brook, 63, UK)
87) Eve's Bayou (Kasi Lemmons, 97, US) 
88) Empire of the Sun (Steven Spielberg, 87, US) 
89) Fast Times at Ridgemont High (Amy Heckerling, 82, US)
90) Whistle Down the Wind (Bryan Forbes, 61, UK)  
91) The Kid with a Bike (Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, 2011, Belgium) 
92) The Yearling (Clarence Brown, 46, US) 
93) What Maisie Knew (Scott McGehee and David Siegel, 2012, US) 
94) The Reflecting Skin (Philip Ridley, 90, Canada) 
95) Fish Tank (Andrea Arnold, 2009, UK) 
96) Phantasm (Don Coscarelli, 79, US) 
97) Out of the Blue (Dennis Hopper, 80, US) 
98) Fresh (Boaz Yakin, 94, US) 
99) The Cowboys (Mark Rydell, 72, US) 
100) My Bodyguard (Tony Bill, 80, US) 
101) The Member of the Wedding (Fred Zinnemann, 52, US)

The movies I'm sad I had to leave off: 

Toy Story, National Velvet, Shane, Yi Yi, The Grand Highway, Beasts of the Southern Wild, Valarie and Her Week of Wonders, Somers Town, Heaven Help Us, Beautiful Thing, Ratcatcher, Little Fugitive, Old Enough, After Lucia, The Miracle Worker (62), Mon Oncle, The White Balloon, Rosetta, The Piano, Ghost World, Breaking Awa, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, The Kid (21), Jeremy, Foxes, City of God, Fame, Heavenly Creatures, Come and See, Leave It to Beaver (US TV series), Pelle the Conqueror, Cooley High, Goodbye First Love, Conrack, Puberty Blues, Play, Bambi, The Parent Trap (62), Pinocchio, A Nos Amour, Peppermint Soda, Big, Rumblefish, Vagabond, Never Let Me Go, Monsters Inc., The Ice Storm, A Little Princess, These Three, Radio Days, Shadow of a Doubt, Spellbound (2002), Mad Hot Ballroom, Dogs is Dogs, Easy A, Our Mother's House, The Grand Highway, Peter Pan (Disney), Mary Poppins, How Green Was My Valley, Lassie Come Home, The City of Lost Children, The Squid and the Whale, Alice in the Cities, Leon, La Petit Amour, The Little Colonel, Tex, The Outsiders, Village of the Damned, A Christmas Story, Miracle on 34th Street (46), Paperhouse, The Chalk Garden, A Boy Named Charlie Brown, Tigey Bay, The Search, The Night of the Shooting Stars, David Copperfield (35), Oliver Twist (48), Parade, I Wanna Hold Your Hand, Thirteen, Smooth Talk, The Breakfast Club, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Searching for Bobby Fischer, Killer of Sheep

Sunday, May 10, 2015

1936--The Year in Review

Charles Chaplin remains king, even after the advent of sound and after he so steadfastly refused to adhere to such progress. Even so, his newest film is resolutely improved with sonics, being adorned with his brilliantly crafted score.Yet this particular movie is actually a silent one, as labels go, just as it's also a work that looks baldly forward, vision-wise. Fritz Lang's well-informed blitz against mob rule is Chaplin's clearest competitor for the top spot, sporting some of the year's best acting with the superb Spencer Tracy and Sylvia Sidney. Then we see the first glimpse of a glowing, gem-like shine--Sweden's Ingrid Bergman--who'd adorn filmmaking for some time to come, recreating her own debut performance for Hollywood (and in English) only a few years later. Bubbling under are works by masterful directors like Frank Capra, William Wyler, and George Stevens. Somehow mirroring the top narrative feature, experimental filmmaker Lenny Lye contributes work that's insanely ahead of its time--to the point where it would be rebooted (without note) for Apple computer commercials in the late 90s (even looking at it now, it seems absolutely nuts--it's the most brilliant movie of the year). Meanwhile, the forward-thinking FDR administration delivers one of the finest and most famous documentary shorts ever made. It should be noted that Disney and Warner Brothers (headed here by the great Tex Avery, whose catchy I Love to Singa is a fan favorite) make terrific strides this year. And I love the villainous play by the young and supremely dupicitous Bonita Granville and, yep, that boldly iconic supporting turn by Paul Robeson as he sings the only version of "Ol' Man River" that could ever really be sung. Meanwhile, both the disaster movie San Francisco and the futuristic Things to Come are instant landmarks for the special effects craft. And it should be noted that William Cameron Menzies' art direction for Things to Come would clearly influence architecture in real life for decades to come. The future, it seems, was electric in the 1936 air.

PICTURE: MODERN TIMES (Charles Chaplin...US) (2nd: Fury (Fritz Lang...US), followed by: Dodsworth (William Wyler...US); Mr Deeds Goes to Town (Frank Capra...US); Swing Time (US…George Stevens); Things to Come (UK…William Cameron Menzies, Alexander Korda);  Intermezzo (Sweden…Gustaf Molander); Show Boat (US…James Whale); The Petrified Forest (US…Archie Mayo); The Green Pastures (William Keighley and Marc Connelly...US)


ACTOR: Spencer Tracy, FURY (2nd: William Powell, My Man Godfrey, followed by: Charles Chaplin, Modern Times; Gary Cooper, Mr Deeds Goes to Town; Walter Huston, Dodsworth; Rex Ingram, The Green Pastures; Charles Laughton, Rembrandt)
 

ACTRESS: Ingrid Bergman, INTERMEZZO (2nd: Carole Lombard, My Man Godfrey, followed by:
Sylvia Sidney, Fury; Jean Arthur, Mr Deeds Goes to Town; Irene Dunne, Theodora Goes Wild;
Greta Garbo, Camille; Luise Rainer, The Great Ziegfeld) 



SUPPORTING ACTOR: Paul Robeson, SHOWBOAT (2nd: Humphrey Bogart, The Petrified Forest, followed by: Walter Brennan, Come and Get It; Mischa Auer, My Man Godfrey; Oscar Homolka, Sabotage; Akim Tamiroff, The General Died at Dawn)


SUPPORTING ACTRESS: Bonita Granville, THESE THREE (2nd: Alice Brady, My Man Godfrey, followed by: Gale Sondergaard, Anthony Adverse; Mary Astor, Dodsworth; Helen Morgan, Showboat; Elsa Lanchester, Rembrandt)

 

DIRECTOR: Charles Chaplin, MODERN TIMES (2nd: Fritz Lang, Fury, followed by: William Wyler, Dodsworth; George Stevens, Swing Time; William Cameron Menzies and Alexander Korda, Things to Come; Frank Capra, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town)



SCREENPLAY: Fritz Lang, Bartlett Cormack and Norman Krasna, FURY (2nd: Charles Chaplin, Modern Times, followed by: Lillian Hellman, These Three; Morrie Myskind and Eric Hatch, My Man Godfrey; Robert Riskind and Clarence Budington Kelland, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town; Charles Kenyon and Delmer Daves, The Petrified Forest)



LIVE ACTION SHORT FILM: THE PLOW THAT BROKE THE PLAINS (Pare Lorentz, US), followed by: Disorder in the Court (The Three Stooges; Preston Black) ; Night Mail (Harry Watt and Basil Wright, UK)



ANIMATED SHORT FILM: RAINBOW DANCE (Lenny Lye, US) (2nd: I Love to Singa (Tex Avery, US) (2nd: Popeye the Sailor Meets Sinbad the Sailor (Dave Fleischer, US), followed by: The Country Cousin (Wilfred Jackson, US); Thru the Mirror (David Hand, US); Elmer Elephant (Wilfred Jackson, US)


CINEMATOGRAPHY: SWING TIME, Showboat, Modern Times, Fury, Anthony Adverse



ART DIRECTION: THINGS TO COME, Dodsworth, The Great Ziegfeld, Anthony Adverse

COSTUME DESIGN: SWING TIME, The Great Ziegfeld, Anthony Adverse, Rembrandt
  
ORIGINAL SCORE: Charles Chaplin, MODERN TIMES (2nd: Heinz Provost and Robert Henning, Intermezzo)

VISUAL EFFECTS: THINGS TO COME (2nd: San Francisco)

Sunday, May 3, 2015

1935--The Year in Review

Easily the most entertaining film of a nondescript year, Hitchcock's The 39 Steps is a constant surprise. It begins and ends in stunning fashion, and even though Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will is clearly the most influential movie of its time, Hitchcock's finest British production is obviously the narrative movie of the year--it's just as exciting now as it was when it was made. But James Whale's The Bride of Frankenstein came close to eclipsing it with the sheer force of its performances and design (it's at the top as one of the greatest sequels produced). With animation, Disney continues to contribute beautiful work with The Band Concert, which would prove to be among Mickey Mouse's finest moments. Still, in the end, it is Riefenstahl's images that will live forever, even if they live in infamy. 


PICTURE: THE 39 STEPS (UK…Alfred Hitchcock) ((2nd: The Bride of Frankenstein (US…James Whale), followed by: Triumph of the Will (Germany...Leni Refenstahl), Top Hat (US…Mark Sandrich), Captain Blood (US...Michael Curtiz), Mutiny on the Bounty (US…Frank Lloyd), A Night at the Opera (US…Sam Wood), Ruggles of Red Gap (US…Leo McCarey), Sylvia Scarlett (US…George Cukor), David Copperfield (US...George Cukor), The Man on the Flying Trapeze (US…Clyde Bruckman), A Midsummer Night’s Dream (US…William Dieterle and Max Reinhardt), A Tale of Two Cities (US…Jack Conway)


ACTOR: Charles Laughton, RUGGLES OF RED GAP (2nd: Ronald Colman, A Tale of Two Cities, followed by: Boris Karloff, The Bride of Frankenstein; Peter Lorre, Mad Love; Victor McLaglen,  The Informer; W.C. Fields, The Man on the Flying Trapeze; Groucho Marx, A Night at the Opera; Clark Gable, Mutiny on the Bounty; Charles Laughton, Mutiny on the Bounty; Paul Muni, The Story of Louis Pasteur; Will Rogers, Steamboat Round the Bend)


ACTRESS: Katharine Hepburn, SYLVIA SCARLETT (2nd: Jean Arthur, The Whole Town‘s Talking, followed by: Bette Davis, Dangerous; Greta Garbo, Anna Karenina; Ginger Rogers, Top Hat; Katharine Hepburn, Alice Adams; Miriam Hopkins, Becky Sharp)


SUPPORTING ACTOR: Ernest Thesiger, THE BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN (2nd: Mickey Rooney, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, followed by: W.C. Fields, David Copperfield; Franchot Tone, Mutiny on the Bounty; Basil Rathbone, Captain Blood; Edward Everett Horton, Top Hat)


SUPPORTING ACTRESS: Elsa Lanchester. THE BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN (2nd: Edna May Oliver, David Copperfield, followed by: Mary Boland, Ruggles of Red Gap; Florence Eldridge, Les Misérables; Zasu Pitts, Ruggles of Red Gap; Jessie Ralph, David Copperfield)

 
DIRECTOR: Leni Riefenstahl, TRIUMPH OF THE WILL (2nd: James Whale, The Bride of Frankenstein, followed by: Alfred Hitchcock, The 39 Steps; Michael Curtiz, Captain Blood; George Cukor, Sylvia Scarlett; John Ford, The Informer)

SCREENPLAY: Charles Bennett and Ian Hay, THE 39 STEPS (2nd: William Hurlbut and John L. Balderson, The Bride of Frankenstein; W.P. Lipscomb and S.N. Behrman, A Tale of Two Cities; George S. Kaufman, Morrie Ryskind, James Kevin McGuinness, A Night at the Opera; Dudley Nichols, The Informer; Gladys Unger, John Collier, and Mortimer Offner, Sylvia Scarlett)



LIVE ACTION SHORT FILM: CAB CALLOWAY'S JITTERBUG PARTY (Fred Waller) (2nd: Tit for Tat (Laurel and Hardy; Charles Rogers); Uncivil Warriors (Three Stooges; Del Lord); Three Little Beers (Three Stooges; Del Lord)




ANIMATED SHORT FILM: THE BAND CONCERT (Wilfred Jackson and Walt Disney) (2nd:  Colour Box (Lenny Lye), followed by: Three Orphan Kittens (David Hand and Walt Disney)



CINEMATOGRAPHY: Hal Mohr, A MIDSUMMER'S NIGHT DREAM (2nd: Sepp Allinger, Triumph of the Will, followed by Bernard Knowles, The 39 Steps)


ART DIRECTION: TOP HAT, The Dark Angel, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Bride of Frankenstein


COSTUME DESIGN: CAPTAIN BLOOD, Top Hat, A Midsummer Night's Dream, David Copperfield

Saturday, April 11, 2015

1934--The Year in Review

One year after his masterful Zero for Conduct, Jean Vigo once again stands tall against all comers. His visionary, dreamlike romance completely overtook the flowering of the Hollywood screwball comedy with Twentieth Century, It Happened One Night (which would go on to win all the major awards), and W.C. Fields' It's A Gift (the funniest of these films). Vigo's early death deprived cinema of what might have been, but his one-of-a-kind feature still rings thoroughly ahead of its time. Still, the robust performances leading Hawks' comedy masterpiece ring even louder (there's nothing in film entire like seeing Barrymore imitating a camel). Meanwhile, in the shorts categories, the looming appeal of color transforms the very nature of attending the cinema. And, in cinematography, James Wong Howe makes great strides in converting black-and-white into realism with his creative work in service of a totally unrealistic, utterly charming crime-fighting couple, Nick and Nora Charles (the "thin man" refers to the villain they were chasing in the first film, though "The Thin Man" became shorthand for the couple themselves). As a result of his work and the efforts of smart screenwriters Hackett and Goodrich, the witty repartee between William Powell and Myrna Loy would forever transform the speedy character of the best movie (and television) dialogue. Also not to be forgotten: the extremely gorgeous images in Von Sternberg's The Scarlet Empress, Hitchcock's The Man Who Knew Too Much, and De Mille's Cleopatra.

PICTURE: L'ATALANTE (France...Jean Vigo) (2nd: Twentieth Century (US...Howard Hawks), followed by: It Happened One Night (US...Frank Capra), The Scarlet Empress (US...Josef von Sternberg), It's A Gift (US...Norman Z. McLeod), The Thin Man (US...W.S. Van Dyke), Imitation of Life (US...John Stahl), The Man Who Know Too Much (UK...Alfred Hitchcock), Death Takes a Holiday (US...Mitchell Leisen), The Merry Widow (US...Ernst Lubischt), Of Human Bondage (US...John Cromwell), Our Daily Bread (US...King Vidor), Judge Priest (US...John Ford), Babes in Toyland (US...Charles Rogers and Gus Meins), Tarzan and His Mate (US...Cedric Gibbons and Jack Conway), Cleopatra (US...Cecil B. DeMille), The Barretts of Wimpole Street (US...Sidney Franklin), The Black Cat (US...Edgar Ulmer)


ACTOR: John Barrymore, TWENTIETH CENTURY (2nd: W.C. Fields, It's a Gift; followed by: Clark Gable, It Happened One Night; William Powell, The Thin Man; Frederic March, Death Takes a Holiday; Will Rogers, Judge Priest)



ACTRESS: Carole Lombard, TWENTIETH CENTURY (2nd: Bette Davis, Of Human Bondage, followed by:Claudette Colbert, It Happened One Night; Myrna Loy, The Thin Man; Dita Parlo, L'Atalante; Claudette Colbert, Imitation of Life; Marlene Dietrich, The Scarlet Empress)


SUPPORTING ACTOR: Michel Simon, L'ATALANTE (2nd: Edward Everett Horton, The Gay Divorcee, followed by: Peter Lorre, The Man Who Knew Too Much; Charles Laughton, The Barretts of Wimpole Street; Sam Jaffe, The Scarlet Empress; Frank Morgan, The Affairs of Cellini)


SUPPORTING ACTRESS: Kathleen Howard, IT'S A GIFT (2nd: Louise Beavers, Imitation of Life, followed by: Louise Dresser, The Scarlet Empress; Alice Brady, The Gay Divorcee; Joan Blondell, Dames; Una Merkel, The Merry Widow)

DIRECTOR: Jean Vigo, L'ATALANTE (2nd: Howard Hawks, Twentieth Century, followed by: Josef von Sternberg, The Scarlet Empress; W.S. Van Dyke, The Thin Man; Frank Capra, It Happened One Night; Norman Z. McLeod, It's a Gift)

SCREENPLAY: Albert Hackett and Frances Goodrich, THE THIN MAN (2nd: Ben Hecht and Charles McArthur, Twentieth Century, followed by: Robert Riskin, It Happened One Night; Jean Vigo, Albert Riera, and Jean Guinee, L'Atalante; Jack Cunningham, It's A Gift; William Hurlbut, Imitation of Life)



LIVE ACTION SHORT FILM: LA CUCARACHA (Lloyd Corrigan; early Technicolor) (2nd: Men in Black (Ray McCarey (The Three Stooges)), followed by: Punch Drunks (Lou Breslow (The Three Stooges))



ANIMATED SHORT FILM:  THE TORTOISE AND THE HARE (Wilfred Jackson and Walt Disney) (2nd: The Big Bad Wolf (Burt Gillett and Walt Disney); The Grasshopper and the Ant (Wilfred Jackson and Walt Disney))



CINEMATOGRAPHY: James Wong Howe, THE THIN MAN (2nd: Louis Berger, Jean Paul Alphen, and Boris Kaufman, L'Atalante, followed by: Bert Glennon, The Scarlet Empress; Victor Milner, Cleopatra)


ART DIRECTION: THE SCARLET EMPRESS, The Thin Man, The Gay Divorcee, Cleopatra


COSTUME DESIGN: CLEOPATRA, The Scarlet Empress, The Thin Man, The Barretts of Wimpole Street